sIT UT IUDICIUM
Justice without force is
powerless; force without justice
is tyrannical.
- Blaise Pascal
Article III of the U.S. Constitution

Section. 1.

The judicial Power of the United States shall be vested
in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as
the Congress may from time to time ordain and
establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior
Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour,
and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a
Compensation, which shall not be diminished during
their Continuance in Office.
x
vsupreme Court of the United States

John G Roberts Jr -
Chief Justice of the Supreme
Court

Appointed by George W. Bush
...

Took Seat September 29, 2005

Clarence Thomas -
Associate Justice of the
Supreme Court

Appointed by George W.H  
Bush ...

Took Seat October 23, 1991
... Currently is the senior judge
in time of service on the court
and 2nd African-American on
the Court

Ruth Bader Ginsberg-
Associate Justice of the
Supreme Court

Appointed by Bill Clinton ...

Took Seat October 23, 1991
...
b
n
n

Stephen G Beyer-
Associate Justice of the
Supreme Court

Appointed by Bill Clinton ...

Took Seat August 3, 1994

Samuel A Alito -
Associate Justice of the
Supreme Court

Appointed by George W
Bush...

Took Seat January 31, 2006

Sonia Sotomoyer -
Associate Justice of the
Supreme Court

Appointed by Barrack
Obama ...

Took Seat August 8. 2009

Eleana Kegan -
Associate Justice of the
Supreme Court

Appointed by Barrack
Obama ...

Took Seat August 7. 2010

Neil M. Gorsuch -
Associate Justice of the
Supreme Court

Appointed by Donald Trump
...

Took Seat April 10, 2017

Brett M. Kavanaugh -
Associate Justice of the
Supreme Court

Appointed by Donald Trump
...

Took Seat October 6, 2018
Senior or Retired Supreme Court Judges
The United States Congress established the retirement for Supreme Court justices at full
salary in the Judiciary Act of 1869, the same law that settled the number of justices at nine.
Congress felt that since Supreme Court justices, like all federal judges, are well paid and
appointed for life; a lifetime pension at full salary would encourage judges to retire rather
than attempting to serve during extended periods of poor health and potential senility.

In 1937, the option was extended to Supreme Court justices, although justices so electing
are generally referred to as "retired" justices rather than as on senior status. A senior
justice is essentially an at-large senior judge, able to be assigned to any inferior federal
court by the Chief Justice, but receiving the salary of a retired justice.

Sandra Day O'Connor -
Associate Justice of the
Supreme Court Retired

Appointed by  Ronald Reagan
...1st Woman Supreme Court
Judge

Retired January 31, 2006,

Anthony M Kennedy -
Associate Justice of the
Supreme Court Retired

Appointed by  Ronald
Reagan ...

Retired July 31, 2018

David H Souter -
Associate Justice of the
Supreme Court Retired

Appointed by  George W.H  
Bush ...

Retired June 29, 2009
Lower Federal Courts
The state and territorial courts of the individual U.S. states and territories operate under
the authority of the state and territorial constitutions and state and territorial law.

Federal statutes that refer to the "courts of the United States" are referring only to the
courts of the federal government, and not the courts of the individual states and counties.
Because of the federalist underpinnings of the division between sovereign federal and
state governments, the various state court systems are free to operate in ways that vary
widely from those of the federal government, and from one another. In practice, however,
every state has adopted a division of its judiciary into at least two levels, and almost every
state has three levels, with trial courts hearing cases which may be reviewed by appellate
courts, and finally by a state supreme court. A few states have two separate supreme
courts, with one having authority over civil matters and the other reviewing criminal cases.
47 states and the federal government allow at least one appeal of right from a final
judgment on the merits, meaning that the court receiving the appeal must decide the
appeal after it is briefed and argued properly. Three states do not provide a right to a first
appeal. Rather, they give litigants only a right to petition for the right to have an appeal
heard.

State courts often have diverse names and structures, as illustrated below. State courts
hear about 98% of litigation; most states have courts of special jurisdiction, which typically
handle minor disputes such as traffic citations, and courts of general jurisdiction
responsible for more serious disputes.
he courts of the United States are closely linked hierarchical systems of courts at the
federal and state levels. The federal courts form the judicial branch of the federal
government of the United States and operate under the authority of the United States
Constitution and federal law.
Map of the boundaries of the United States courts of appeals (by color) and
United States District Courts. All District Courts lie within the boundary of a
single jurisdiction, usually in a state (heavier lines); some states have more
than one District Court (lighter lines denote those jurisdictions
Judges of the United Stated Court of appeals for the Third Circuit

(U.S Court of Appeals for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware and Virgin Islands

Chief Judge D. Brooks Smith
Judge Theodore A. McKee
Judge Thomas L. Ambro
Judge Michael A. Chagares
Judge Kent A. Jordan
Judge Thomas M. Hardiman
Judge Joseph A. Greenaway, Jr.
Judge Patty Shwartz
Judge Cheryl Ann Krause
Judge L. Felipe Restrepo
Judge Stephanos Bibas
Judge David J. Porter
Judge Paul B. Matey
Judge Peter J. Phipps
Judge Walter K. Stapleton
Judge Morton I. Greenberg
Judge Anthony J. Scirica
Judge Robert E. Cowen
Judge Richard L. Nygaard
Judge Jane R. Roth
Judge Marjorie O. Rendell
Judge Julio M. Fuentes
Judge D. Michael Fishernn
The United States courts of appeals or circuit courts are the intermediate appellate courts of the
United States federal judiciary.  The courts are divided into 13 circuits, and each hears appeals
from the district courts within its borders, or in some instances from other designated federal
courts and administrative agencies. Appeals from the circuit courts are taken to the Supreme
Court of the United States.
The United States courts of appeals are considered among the most powerful and influential
courts in the United States. Because of their ability to set legal precedent in regions that cover
millions of Americans, the United States courts of appeals have strong policy influence on U.S.
law. Moreover, because the Supreme Court chooses to review fewer than 2% of the more than
7,000 to 8,000 cases filed with it annually, the U.S. courts of appeals serve as the final arbiter on
most federal cases. The D.C. Circuit in particular is very influential, since it covers Washington,
D.C., and thus covers Congress and many U.S. government agencies. The Ninth Circuit, which
covers the entire west coast of the United States and contains 20% of the American population,
is also an influential court.

The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court
system. Both civil and criminal cases are filed in the district court, which is a court of law, equity,
and admiralty. There is a United States bankruptcy court associated with each United States
district..
.
Article V Of the Constitution of PA ---THE JUDICIARY

Unified Judicial System
Section 1.
The judicial power of the Commonwealth shall be vested in a unified judicial system
consisting of the Supreme Court, the Superior Court, the Commonwealth Court, courts of
common pleas, community courts, municipal and traffic courts in the City of Philadelphia,
such other courts as may be provided by law and justices of the peace. All courts and
justices of the peace and their jurisdiction shall be in this unified judicial system.
Pennsylvania Supreme Court


The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania is the highest court in the
Commonwealth.  It is also the oldest appellate court in the nation, dating to
1684.  The court makes final interpretations of state law and has
administrative authority over the entire Pennsylvania court system.  Seven
justices make up the court.  They are elected to 10-year terms.  The
longest-serving member of the court presides as chief justice.  The court
holds sessions in Philadelphia, Harrisburg and Pittsburgh.

The Supreme Court receives about 2,500 civil and criminal appeals each
year.  It has the discretionary power to hear and decide only those cases
that it deems to have statewide importance or to require clarification on a
point of law.  The court must review certain types of cases such as all death
penalty cases and appeals from lawsuits that originate in Commonwealth
Court.  The Supreme Court also can take up any case in any court in
Pennsylvania if it considers an issue of immediate public importance to be
at stake.  When it does this, the court exercises one of two powers known
as the "King's Bench" power or the power of "extraordinary jurisdiction."
!st Row
Justice Max Baer, Chief Justice Thomas G. Salyor, Justice Debra Todd
2nd Row
Justice David N Wecht, Justice Christine Donohue, Justice Ken Dougherty,
Justice Sallie Updyke Mundy
The  Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court
The Commonwealth Court is one of Pennsylvania's two
statewide intermediate appellate courts. This court, which was
established in 1968, is unlike any other state court in the nation.
Its jurisdiction generally is limited to legal matters involving
state and local government and regulatory agencies. Litigation
typically focuses on such subjects as banking, insurance and
utility regulation and laws affecting taxation, land use,
elections, labor practices and workers compensation.
Commonwealth Court also acts as a court of original
jurisdiction, or a trial court, when lawsuits are filed by or
against the Commonwealth.

The Commonwealth Court is made up of nine judges who serve
10-year terms. The president judge is chosen by his or her
colleagues for a five-year term. The court generally decides
cases in three-judge panels and sits in Philadelphia, Harrisburg
and Pittsburgh.
!st Row
Judge Anne E Covey , Judge P Kevin Brobson, Judge Renee Cohn
Jubelirer, President Judge Mary Hannah Leavitt,   Judge J Andrew
Crompton, Judge Patricia A McCullough, Judge Michael H. Wojcik
2nd Row
Judge Ellen Ceisler, , Judge Christine Fizzano Cannon, Senior Judge
Bonnie Brigance Leadbetter
The  Pennsylvania Superior Court
The Superior Court of Pennsylvania is one of two Pennsylvania intermediate appellate
courts, the other being the Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania. (The subject matter
jurisdiction of the Commonwealth Court is limited to review of decisions of governmental
agencies, and certain non-criminal cases where the Commonwealth is a party; the
Superior Court is the appellate court of general jurisdiction.) Appeal to the Superior
Court is generally of right from final decisions of the Court of Common Pleas. Although
different panels of three judges may sit to hear appeals, there is only one Superior Court
(that is, Pennsylvania is not divided into appellate territories). The court is based in
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania and sits to hear cases in Harrisburg, Pittsburgh, and
Philadelphia.
Superior Court judges are elected in statewide elections. The term of a Superior Court
Judge is 10 years. After serving 10 years, judges may hold their seats if they win a
retention vote. Voters have the right to retain or reject (vote out of office) Superior Court
judges in Pennsylvania. Superior Court judges must retire from active service at the age
of 75. They may serve as Senior Judges though, as approved by the Pennsylvania
Supreme Court.
President Judge Jack A. Panella, President Judge Emeritus, John T. Bender,Judge Mary
Jane Bowes, Judge Jacqueline O. Shogan. Judge Anne E. Lazarus. Judge Judith Ference
Olson, Judge Victor P. Stabile, Judge Alice Beck Dubow, Judge Deborah A. Kunselman,
Judge Carolyn H. Nichols, Judge Mary P. Murray,Judge Maria McLaughlin, Judge Megan
McCarthy King, Judge Daniel D. McCaffery, Senior Judge John L. Musmanno, President
Judge Emeritus, Kate Ford Elliott,President Judge Emeritus, Susan Peikes
Gantman,President Judge Emeritus, Correale F. Stevens, Senior Judge Eugene B.
Strassburger, III, Senior Judge James Gardner Colins, Senior Judge Dan Pellegrini
The Pennsylvania court system is
structured like a pyramid with the
Supreme Court at the top.
A
v
A---- Supreme Court of PA
B --- Superior Court of PA
C --- Commonwealth Court
D --- Courts of Common Pleas
       1 . Lehigh
       2   Northampton
       3    Carbon
       4    All other Counties
E ---- Minor Courts
        Magistrate   Courts
B
C
D
D
1
2
3
4
E
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